Photographer's Note

The construction of Fortaleza de S. Julião of the Bar was recommended by D. Manuel I its son D. João in a land, together to the confluence of the bars North and South that if sighted of the ermida one of Stº Amaro, where the King went to beg cure for its legs. With effect, then called the Strong one of the Tip of S. Gião, by having been constructed in the place where before a small chapel with that name existed, was ordered to construct for D. João III, not only for fulfilment of the desire of its father but also because its military council members considered that the maritime defense of the Port of Lisbon if would not have to base on the Castle of S. Jorge and Cerca Moura, but yes in fortalezas together to the estuary of the Tejo. The plans of the fortaleza, whose construction if would have initiated in 1553, are attributed Miguel Arruda, who was involved in the construction of the Monastery of the Battle and also in the blockhouse of Ceuta. The fort was palco of two surrenders: the 13 of August of 1580 deliver to the Spaniard, for agreement of Tristão Vaz of the Fertile valley with the troops of Filipe II of Spain and the 12 of December of 1640 when an officer of Filipe IV of Spain, D. Fernando de La Cueva, returns it to the Portuguese, without resistance, in exchange for substantial reward. Cortaleza de S. Julião of the Bar Was jail - to militate and politico - since the domain of the Filipes until the reigned o of D. Miguel. General Gomes Freire de Andrade will have been probably the most known of these forced occupying, where, by the way, she only left the 18 of October of 1817, to be hanged. In its memory a tablet was placed and to silhar of tiles with its efígie on the door of the tower. In the beginning of century XIX (1807), the French troops, under the command of General Junot, had invaded Portugal for the border of the Side, having reached Lisbon in 30 of November, when the real family already met the way of Brazil. Junot visited at least two times the ortaleza during the occupation. In 2 of September of 1808, after the Convention of Sintra, the English flag substituted the Frenchman in the mast of the Tower of S. Julião of the Bar. The Pombalino License of 1 of February of 1758 that it created the Service of Lighthouses, indicated S. Julião as one of the places for which El-Rei commanded "... that soon if they raise six competent pha-roes for guide of the navigation of the related coasts and bar (...)" Despite this fact, evidences that already a lighthouse in S. Julião had existed, before terramoto of 1755, to judge for that the priest Matias Marques Cardoso says, prior of the clientele of N.S. of the Conceição, in a "enclosed Memory" in the "Geographic Dictionary of Portugal" of the priest Cardoso Luis, filed in the Tower of the Tumble: "a lighthouse in top of a highest tower Has this ortaleza that if raises in the way of the square which if ascended of night for guide of the boats, of 1º of October until the ends of March. The nominated lighthouse fell with terramoto." The Tower of S. Julião was restored and added "in thirty palmos" (six meters) entering in functioning in 1761 with a small luminous source of one alone it calls, fed the oil and protected by a lantern in rock with vain for ticket of the light. In 1775 a device of oil lamps of Argand with parabolic reflectores is installed. The lighthouse, in 1848 and 1865, is modernized, having been in this last installed date a device to lenticular of Fresnel of 4ª order, producing fixed white light, fed the distilled gas wooden. The illumination, in 1885, passed to be gotten by the gas incandescence gotten of the oil. The lighthouse came back to suffer new repairings in 1893 and 1913, being to it installed a sonorous signal of tube in 1916, but soon in March of this year and until December of 1918, Great War was extinguished in virtue of the I. For reason of the resolution of the Conference of Demilitation carried through in Lisbon, in 1933, that the fixed lights of the demilitations banished making marginal notes important cities or populations, the light of the lighthouse, that were white fixed, passed the red of occultations the same, being electrificado, for linking to the public net of energy and the sonorous signal substituted by a electrodinâmica sereia. The lighthouse, in 1980, with the installation of a changer of light bulbs and a group automatic ground starter, controlled saw radio in the Central office of Monitorização of the Lighthouses of the Bar of Lisbon, installed in the Direcção de Faróis, was automatized having for this left fact to give faroleiro personal service there. However, the ortaleza was disgarnished militarily in 1951, being currently official residence of the Minister of State and the National Defense.

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Additional Photos by Goncalo Lopes (Bluejeans) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 9250 W: 115 N: 13285] (64251)
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