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Hram Svetog Save i spomenik vozdu Karadjordju vodji prvog Srpskog ustanka

Temple of Saint Sava and Karadjordje monument


Saint Sava (Serbian: Свети Сава, Romanized: Sveti Sava) (1175 - January 14, 1235), originally the prince Rastko Nemanjić (Serbian: Растко Немањић) (son of the Serbian ruler and founder of the Serbian medieval state Stefan Nemanja and brother of Stefan Prvovenčani, first Serbian king), is the first Serb archbishop (1219-1233), the most important saint in the Serbian Orthodox Church and important cultural and political worker of that time.

In his youth (c. 1192), he fled from his home to join the orthodox monastic colony on Mount Athos (Holy Mountain on the Chalkidiki peninsula) and was given the name Sava. He first traveled to a Russian monastery and then moved to the Greek Monastery of Vatopedi. At the end of 1197 his father, king Stefan Nemanja joined him. In 1198 they together moved to and restored the abandoned monastery Hilandar, which was at that time the center of Serbian Christian monastic life.

St. Sava's father took the monastic vows under the name Simeon and died in Hilandar on February 13, 1199. He is also canonised, as Saint Simeon.

After his father's death, Sava retreated to an ascetic monastery in Kareya which he built himself in 1199. He also wrote the Kareya Typicon both for Hilandar and for the monastery of ascetism. The last typicon is inscribed into the marble board at the ascetic monastery, which today also exists in it. He stayed on Athos until the end of 1207.

St. Sava managed to persuade the patriarch of the Greek/Byzantine Orthodox Church to elevate St. Sava to the position of the first Serbian Archbishop, thereby establishing the Independence of Archbishopic of the Serbian Church in the year of 1219.

Saint Sava is considered the founder of the independent Serbian Orthodox Church and Serbian Orthodox Christians celebrate him as patron saint of education and medicine. He is commemorated on January 27 according to the Julian calendar and on January 14 according to the Gregorian calendar. Since the 1830's, Saint Sava has become the patron saint of Serb schools and schoolchildren. On his day, students partake in recitals in church.
Sava died in Tarnovgrad in northern Bulgaria during the reign of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, having become ill following the Divine Liturgy on the Feast of the Epiphany on January 12, 1235. He died of pneumonia in the evening between Saturday and Sunday, January 14, 1235. [1] He was buried at the St Forty Martyrs Church where it remained until May 6, 1237 when his sacred bones were moved to the Mileševa monastery in southern Serbia. 360 years later in 1595 the Ottoman Turks unearthed his remains and took them to Vračar hill in Belgrade where they were incinerated on a stake.

The Temple of Saint Sava in Belgrade, whose construction was planned in 1939, begun in 1985 and awaits completion by 2004 is the largest active Orthodox temple in the world today. It was built on the place where the bones were believed to have been burned. In reality, what is now Vracar hill was outside the city walls and not within easy reach. There was a Vračar hill on what is now Tašmajdan. This place was a Turkish execution ground and would have been a more likely candidate. Also, tradition holds the place of burning as "Čupina Umka", the tallest point in Tašmajdan.




Karađorđe Petrović (Serbian Cyrillic: Карађорђе Петровић; Anglicised: Karageorge Petrovitch), (November 3, 1768? – July 13, 1817) was the leader of the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire, and the founder of the Serbian House of Karađorđević.

He was born as Đorđe (George) Petrović, and is of Montegerin Serbian origin. Because of his dark complexion and short temper he was nicknamed "Black George", kara meaning black in Turkish, or George Czerny.
Karađorđe was born in the village of Viševci, Ottoman Empire, and in his youth he was a cattle-keeper. In 1787, after he killed a Turk, he fled to Habsburg Austria where he volunteered in the Freikorps during the Austro-Turkish War, 1787-1791.

After the Treaty of Sistova, he returned to Serbia and settled in Topola herding cattle and conducting trade, prospering and occasionally joining Hajduks.

Ottoman repression in Serbia significantly increased in the beginning of 19th century and culminated in January 1804, when janissary leaders, the dahis, seized the rule of Serbia and prepared executions of influential men, priests, rebels and wealthy traders. They decided to kill Karađorđe as well, who survived by killing two of the men sent to execute him after being informed about actions against him.

As the response, Serbs rallied in Orašac on 14 February 1804 (2 February on the Julian calendar), and Karađorđe was chosen to be the leader of the uprising. The rebels managed to quickly incite revolt, firstly under the pretext of liberation from dahias, but after the Battle of Ivankovac in 1805 they started open combat to end the rule of the Ottoman sultan.

The rebels achieved several victories, including in the Battle of Mišar in 1805, and the Battles of Deligrad and Belgrade in 1806, after which both sides agreed to sign a peace treaty. However, in 1807, Karađorđe aligned with the Russian Empire in a war against the Ottoman Empire.

In 1812, threatened by Napoleon's French Empire, Russia had to quickly sign a peace treaty with the Ottomans. In 1813, the Ottoman Empire launched a big assault on Serbia, and Karađorđe, along with other rebel leaders, fled to the Austrian Empire on 21 September 1813 and, after some time, moved on to Bessarabia, where he encountered members of the Filiki Eteria, a Greek secret society which planned the liberation of all Christians from the Ottomans. Assisted by the Eteria, Karađorđe entered Serbia with a forged passport on 28 June 1817.

On 24 July 1817, Karađorđe was killed by Miloš Obrenović's men in Radovanjski Lug under Ottoman orders.

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